Nature Science Update reported on a surprising find by Joseph Change (Yale) and Douglas Rohde (MIT). They claim, based on computer modeling of human breeding and migration, that we are all related to the same common ancestor, not millions, but just thousands of years ago, possibly just 1500 BC in Asia, and that perhaps a couple of thousand years before that, everyone alive at that time was an ancestor of all of us living today. The results are published in Nature Sept. 30.1 The finding is not entirely new; it is more a refinement of simpler models taking better account of migration and geographical isolation. It does not mean people didn’t exist before that, but only that the current population is genealogically related. Jotun Hein (Oxford) cautions in the same issue2 that genealogical questions are “distinct from questions about the history of our genetic material,” which are estimated by different methods: “Universal common ancestry (in the pedigree sense) and genetic common ancestry thus occur on different timescales,” he says. If you think about it, it’s not all that surprising that in relatively few generations, a population’s family trees will overlap. Think of inverted pyramids that overlap slightly; as they grow (going back in time), they will all eventually converge, unless the populations are completely isolated, which does not seem to be the case for any people group. Simple models that assumed random mating converged in just 33 generations, or 800 years ago, which is clearly unrealistic. By taking geography and history into account, Hein says, Rohde has tried to arrive at a more credible date for the MRCA (most recent common ancestor). Even more surprising, Hein says, the models predict that before the MRCA, anyone alive would have been an ancestor of everyone alive today. Rohde, Olsen and Chang explain:Given the remaining uncertainties about migration rates and real-world mating patterns, the date of the MRCA [most recent common ancestor] for everyone living today cannot be identified with great precision. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the most recent common ancestor for the world’s current population lived in the relatively recent past–perhaps within the last few thousand years. And a few thousand years before that, although we have received genetic material in markedly different proportions from the people alive at the time, the ancestors of everyone on the Earth today were exactly the same. (Emphasis added in all quotes.)The implication is that the entire human race today, no matter the continent, culture, skin color, language or lifestyle, is a member of one big family:Further work is needed to determine the effect of this common ancestry on patterns of genetic variation in structured populations. But to the extent that ancestry is considered in genealogical rather than genetic terms, our findings suggest a remarkable proposition: no matter the languages we speak or the colour of our skin, we share ancestors who planted rice on the banks of the Yangtze, who first domesticated horses on the steppes of the Ukraine, who hunted giant sloths in the forests of North and South America, and who laboured to build the Great Pyramid of Khufu.For another summary, see the report on EurekAlert, “Most recent common ancestor of all humans surprisingly recent.” Few other popular science news sources are reporting the story – not New Scientist, Scientific American, National Geographic, the BBC News or MSNBC – as eagerly as they typically do with discoveries of hominid fossils alleged to be human evolutionary ancestors.1Douglas L. T. Rohde, Steve Olson, and Joseph T. Chang, “Modelling the recent common ancestry of all living humans,” Nature 431, 562 – 566 (30 September 2004); doi:10.1038/nature02842.2Jotun Hein, “Human evolution: Pedigrees for all humanity,” Nature 431, 518 – 519 (30 September 2004); doi:10.1038/431518a.Notice the model converges on a few thousand years ago, not millions. Such a date is closer to Noah than Lucy. Care should be exercised interpreting what this means, because it is somewhat of a counterintuitive artifact of a mathematical model that makes certain assumptions. Another counterintuitive result, Hein claims, is that “not many generations ago (about six), members of our pedigree existed that did not contribute to us genetically.” The authors are not claiming that humankind popped into existence a few thousand years ago, but only that everyone alive today had the same ancestors. Can the same models be applied to guppies, tigers and oak trees? Hein points to additional interesting questions that will require further refinement of models and the combining of pedigree and genetic ancestry information. One question he asks is, “In the idealized models, how far back would one have to go to find a single couple who are the lone ancestors of everybody?” to which we might add, “and did their names start with A and E?” We can’t judge how valid is Professor Rohdes’ computer model, but it is interesting that this was not published by Answers in Genesis, but by Nature and by researchers from MIT and Yale – not institutions particularly interested in validating Biblical chronology. It calls into question evolutionary assumptions about human pedigrees stretching back tens of thousands and hundreds of thousands of years. It also means that all those “racial” differences between people are superficial and must be of recent origin. Like AIG has emphasized in its Biblical creationist answer to racism, we truly are of “one blood,” just as Paul told the Greek philosophers on Mars Hill (Acts 17).(Visited 332 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Controversial self-styled godman, Swamy Nithyananda, has found himself in another controversy with allegations of “illegally confining” two daughters of a Bengaluru-based couple.A petition has been filed in the Gujarat High Court by the couple seeking the court’s help to get back two daughters allegedly “illegally confined” from an ashram set up by Nithyananda, who faces rape charges. The petition is set to be heard by the court on Wednesday.The petitioners, Janardana Sharma and his wife, in their habeas corpus petition said they had admitted their four daughters in an educational institution run by the godman in Bengaluru in 2013 when they were in the age group of 7-15. However, their daughters were allegedly shifted to another institution in his ashram in Ahmedabad without their consent. When they learnt about this, that their daughters were this year shifted to another branch of Nithyananda Dhyanapeetham, named Yogini Sarvagyapeetham, situated on the premises of Delhi Public School in Ahmedabad, they rushed to Ahmedabad and tried to meet them, but the officials in the place did not allow them inside.When officials of the institute refused to let them meet their daughters, the petitioners first sought the local police help. The couple could bring back their two minor daughters with the help of police and Protection of Child Rights Commission. But their elder daughters, Lopamudra Janardhana Sharma (21) and Nandhita (18), refused to come with them.Based on the Sharma family’s complaint, the Ahmedabad Rural police lodged an FIR against Nithyananda and other officials of the Ashram.“Our team is probing the matter,” Ahmedabad (Rural) Superintendent of Police R.V. Asari said.In their petition, the couple alleged that their two younger daughters were kidnapped and kept in illegal confinement for more than two weeks and were deprived of sleep.The Sharmas have urged the court to direct the police as well the institute’s authorities to produce their daughters, who, they alleged, are being kept under “illegal confinement,” before the court and hand them over to them.Cong. slams govt.Meanwhile, the Gujarat Congress slammed the BJP government in the State for not initiating action against Nithyananda Ashram. “It is a well-known fact that Nithyananda enjoys protection from the State government despite the fact that many children are being confined in the ashram against the wishes of their parents,” Gujarat Congress spokesman Manish Doshi said on Tuesday.
India captain Virat Kohli lavished praise on spinner Ravichandran Ashwin on Monday after his 10-wicket match haul vindicated the hosts’ decision to go into the series opener against New Zealand with an extra batsman.Normally a steadfast advocate of a five-bowler attack in Tests, Kohli laid himself open to criticism when the team sacrificed leg-spinner Amit Mishra to make room for an extra batsman in Rohit Sharma.Many questioned the wisdom of the move but with Ashwin claiming half the 20 Kiwi wickets that tumbled at Kanpur’s Green Park Stadium, Kohli was a relieved man.”He’s been outstanding for the Indian team. If you see all the impact players in the world, I think he comes in the top three or four easily,” Kohli told reporters after his team clinched India’s 500th test by 197 runs to go 1-0 up in the three-test series. (Also read: Ravindra Jadeja, Ravichandran Ashwin script 197-run victory in India’s historic 500th Test)”The rankings, of which I’m not a big fan, suggest Ashwin is the best at the moment and there’s no doubt that he is bowling wonderfully well for the past couple of years,” Kohli said.”It’s priceless to have cricketers like that in your test team, players who can give you balance with bat and ball. I wish he keeps nurturing his skills so that we can keep dominating test matches.”Ashwin and left-armer Ravindra Jadeja shared 16 wickets in the spin-dominated contest in which the off-spinner become the second fastest to 200 test wickets, achieving the feat in his 37th match. (Also read: Ravichandran Ashwin breaks Waqar Younis’ record, becomes second fastest to take 200 Test wickets)advertisementAustralian spinner Clarrie Grimmett took one test fewer to reach the milestone.Kohli said it was a smart decision to play another batsman, pointing to Sharma’s unbeaten 68 in the second innings. (Also read: Ravindra Jadeja reveals why he and Ravichandran Ashwin are a dangerous pair)”The extra batsman helped. I mean Rohit got runs in the second innings, (and was) pretty solid with Jadeja. Both were able to play positively and gave us an hour extra to bowl at them.”Meanwhile, the Indian skipper was also pleased with Cheteshwar Pujara, who he says, has improved a lot as he was now scoring at a brisk pace. Pujara had been criticised for a below average show at number three in the previous West Indies tour.”In West Indies, what we spoke about was the need for… he is someone who absorbs the pressure really well but after a certain stage in the innings there comes a time when the team needs runs. That’s where we felt that he has the ability to capitalise. It was just about conveying that to him. He has worked hard on his game. He scored at a good strike rate in the Duleep trophy. Even on this wicket, he was scoring at 65, almost 70 strike rate.”For me it was a revelation, to see Pujara bat that way, because he used to bat that way initially. Especially at home. If you see his double hundreds against England and Australia, he will dominate spinners. That’s exactly what we wanted him to do. We didn’t want him to go into a shell. We want Pujara to bat to his potential. Once he starts scoring runs to go with the composure he already has, it becomes very difficult for the opposition to have control of the game. That’s all we wanted to convey to him. He’s someone who understands what the team wants. He has worked hard on his game. He has come back and he is playing more positively, which we appreciate as a team and me personally as a captain,” he said.
If you’re looking for the comments section, it has moved to our forum, The Chamber. You can go there to comment and holler about these articles, specifically in these threads. You can register for a free account right here and will need one to comment.If you’re wondering why we decided to do this, we wrote about that here. Thank you and cheers! Oklahoma State and Southeastern Louisiana will tee it up on Saturday in Stillwater for the 2016 home opener. Here is everything you need to know.PreviewsUniformsTime2:30 p.m. CSTTelevisionFSNBroadcast team: Brendan Burke | Brian Baldinger | Christian SteckelStreamingFOX GoRadioCowboy Radio NetworkTuneInSirius (119)XM (199)Let’s do this.We’ve arrived! #okstate #GoPokes pic.twitter.com/kLmAcB6OSF— Cowboy Football (@CowboyFB) September 3, 2016